This kind of research is focused on the gathering and interpretation of numerical data such as statistics and percentages--things that can be quantified. Example methods are below.
"Constructing a survey instrument is an art in itself. There are numerous small decisions that must be made – about content, wording, format, placement – that can have important consequences for your entire study. While there’s no one perfect way to accomplish this job, we do have lots of advice to offer that might increase your chances of developing a better final product." ~ Constructing the Survey by Prof William M.K. Trochim
In most social research the data analysis involves three major steps, done in roughly this order:
adapted from Research Methods Knowledge Base by Prof William M.K. Trochim hosted by Conjointly