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Citing Sources

How to cite sources in different formats

Caveat

Make sure to consult your assignment rubric to see if the provided style is what is required for your own bibliography. If you need assistance determining how to cite a resource in a style not listed here, please contact a librarian, via the chat feature to the right or by email at libref@pratt.edu, or talk to your professor for guidance.


Please note that styles guides do not always account for every type of resource that could be cited. Instances where citation models are adapted from other resource models are noted below.

Advertisements

Please note that Chicago style does not provide specific models for advertisements and the below are suggestions based on similar citation formats.

The MLA commercial citation model is adapted from the TV/Radio program citation format.

Print ad:

APA: Name of Company. (Year, Month). Title of image [Advertisement]. Title of Magazine, volume(issue), page number.

MLA: "Title of advertisement". Title of Magazine, date published, page number.

Chicago: Product or Company Name. "Title of Advertisement." Advertisement. Name of Publication, date published, page number.

Internet ad:

APA: Name of Company. (Year). Title of image [Advertisement]. Retrieved from URL.

MLA: "Title of advertisement." Title of Site, date published, URL.

Chicago: Product or Company Name. "Title of Advertisement." Advertisement. Title of Site, date published, URL.

TV/radio commercial:

APA: Company Name. (Year).  Title of commercial [Television/Radio commercial].  City of broadcast: Network name or Retrieved from URL.

MLA: "Title of commercial." Network name or Station call letters, City of broadcast, date of broadcast, URL (if necessary). 

Chicago: Company name. "Title of commercial." Television/Radio commercial. City of broadcast, date of broadcast. URL (if necessary).

See APA examples See MLA examples

Building Plans & Blueprints

Architecture resources generally follow APA style. The MLA and Chicago examples below are based on citation models for drawings/illustrations (for architectural drawing) and archival materials/historic resources (for historical blueprint).

Architectural drawing:

APA: Last name, first initial of Author. (Date). Title of drawing. (Drawing/Plan No. #, if provided). [Architectural drawing]. Retrieved from (name and location or URL of drawing if online).

MLA: Last name, first name of Author. Title of drawing. Date. Collection or Institution name, Location. (If drawing is found online or in a book, click on the examples below to see how to customize the citation.)

Chicago: Last name, first name of Author. Title of drawing. Date. Materials of composition. Collection or Institution name, Location. (If drawing is found online or in a book, click on the examples below to see how to customize the citation.)

Historical blueprint, located in archive or library:

APA: Last name, first initial of Creator or Name of Organization.(Date of creation). Title or description of blueprint [blueprint]. Collection name/number (Fonds name/number, Series number, Box number, File number). Name of archive/library, Location of archive/library.

MLA: Last name, first name of Creator or Name of Organization. Title of blueprint, Date of creation. Call number or box/folder/image number. Collection name. Name of archive/library, Location of archive/library. Date accessed.

Chicago: Last name, first name of Creator or Name of Organization. Title of blueprint, Date of creation, Collection name. Name of archive/library. 

See MLA drawing examplesSee Chicago drawing examples

See APA historical examplesSee MLA and Chicago historical examples

Comics

Comic book:

APA: Author/writer last name, first name, middle initial. (Year published). Name of story. Title of Comic Series (issue #). [Cartoon]. Place of Publication: Publisher.

MLA: Last name, first name of writer (w), Full name of penciller (p), and Full name of inker (i). "Title of story/comic issue." Publication title #Issue Number (Date), Official Publisher Name [Popular Publisher Name].

Chicago: Author/writer last name, first initial. Title of Comic Book Issue. City of Publication: Publisher, year published.

Comic strip:

APA: Last name, first initial of cartoonist. (Date published). Title of cartoon/comic strip. [Cartoon]. Syndication name, Panel referenced.

MLA: Last name, first name of cartoonist. Title of comicPublication (Location of publication). Date published, Syndication name: Panel referenced (if applicable).

See APA and Chicago examplesSee MLA examples

Ephemera

Ephemera refers to a broad category of collectible memorabilia that had been designed for a one-time-use purpose and not intended to be kept or preserved. Types of ephemera include letters, postage stamps, playing cards, baseball cards, admission tickets, and more.

For more examples of citing primary sources in archives, click here.

Ephemera located in an archive:

APA: Last name, first name of Author, or Name of Organization. (Date). Title of document [format]. Name of collection (call number, identifier or box/folder/item number). Name of repository, location.

MLA: Last name, first name of Author, or Name of Organization. "Title of document" [format]. Date. Call number, identifier or box/folder/item number. Collection name. Name of repository, location.

Chicago: Last Name, first name of Author. Title of document. Format. City: Publisher, copyright date. Document number (if available). Source. Collection name. 

Pamphlet:

APA: Name of Organization. (Date of publication). Title of Pamphlet [Format]. Location: the word Author.

MLA: Last name, first name of Author, or Name of Organization.Title of Pamphlet. Publisher, Publication date.

Chicago: Last name, first name of Author, or Name of Organization. Title of Pamphlet. Location: Publisher, Date of Publication. Accessed date, URL (if applicable).

Exhibition Catalog/Brochure:

APA: Last name, first initial of Author, or Name of Museum. (Year). Title [Exhibition catalogue]. City of publication, Country/State: Publisher (usually name of the museum).

MLA:  Last name, first name of Author, if known. Title of Catalog. Museum name, Year.

Chicago: Last name, first name of Author, or Name of Organization. Title of Catalog. Edited by Full name of editor(s) (if available). Location: Publisher, Date of Publication. Exhibition catalog, accessed date. URL (if applicable).

See APA and MLA ephemera examples

See APA pamphlet examplesSee MLA pamphlet examples

See APA catalog examplesSee MLA catalog examples

See Chicago examples

Games

Both the APA and Chicago citations for the TTRPG resource are based on their book citation model.

Video game:

APA: Author/Rightsholder of Game. (Year of Release). Title of Game (Version) [Video game]. Publisher location: Publisher.

MLA: Title of Game. Version, Platform, Year of Release. Additional information as necessary (specific level, composer of game's score, etc.).

Chicago: Author of Game. Title of Game. Version number, if known. Publisher. Platform. Year of Release.

TTRPG published resource:

APA: Author last name, first initial. (Year of Publication). Title: Subtitle. Publisher.

MLA: Title. Publisher, Date of publication.

Chicago: Author last name, first name. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication.

See APA examplesSee MLA examplesSee Chicago examples

See MLA TTRPG handbook citation examples

Interview

The APA and Chicago formats for a published interview in a written medium follow their models for periodical citations.

Personal interview, conducted by you:

APA: Last name, first initial of interviewee. Personal communication. Date of interview.

MLA: Last name, first name of interviewee. Personal interview. Date of interview.

Chicago: Last name, first name of interviewee (occupation/role if necessary). In discussion with the author. Date of interview.

Published interview (written medium [print or online]):

APA: Author last name, first initial. (Year) Title of interview. Title of Publication, volume number (issue number), page number. URL.

MLA: Last name, first name of interviewee. "Title of interview" (if none, use Interview with Full Name of Interviewer). Source, publication date, [URL, if online-only interview].

Chicago: Last name, first name of interviewee. Interview by Name of Interviewer. "Title of Interview." Name of Publication, publication date. [URL, if accessed online].

See APA examplesSee MLA examplesSee Chicago examples

Live Performances

Singular performer (like a concert):

APA: Only reference in the text of the paper, and make sure to include the artist's name and year of the performance.

MLA: Last name, first name of performer/artist. Type of performance (i.e. Concert). Date attended/performed, Venue name, Location of venue.

Chicago (footnote only): Name of Performance, music and lyrics by Performer’s Name, Name of Venue, Location City, State, Date attended/performed.

Collaborative performance (like a play):

APA: Playwright last name, first initial, & Director last name, first initial (Director). (Date Seen). Performance title. Live performance at Theater Name, City, State Abbreviation.

MLA: Performance title. By Author of work being performed, directed by Director of performance, performances by Lead performers, Production/theater company name, Date attended/performed, Venue name, Location of venue.

Chicago (footnote only): Performance title, script (or, music and lyrics) by Playwright Name, dir. by Director Name, Theater Name, City, State Abbreviation, Date Seen.

See APA and Chicago Collaborative Performance examplesSee MLA examples

Maps

Sheet map:

APA: Author. (Date). Title [map]. (Scale). Place of Publication: Publisher.

MLA: Author. Title. Format (usually, Map). Edition. [Scale]. Place of publication: Publisher, Date. Print.

Chicago: Author. Title [map]. Scale. Series, number if known. Place of publication: Publisher, Date.

Map in an atlas:

APA: Last name, first initial of map author. Map title [map]. Scale. In Atlas author name, Atlas Title. (Edition.) Place of publication: Publisher. (Page number).

MLA: Last name, first name of map author. Map title. Format (usually, Map).  Scale. In Atlas Title. Atlas author name. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher, Publication date. Page number(s). Print.

Chicago: Map author. Map Title [map]. Scale. In: Atlas author name, Atlas Title. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher, Publication date, Page number.

Google Map:

APA: City, State Abbreviation. (Date retrieved.) Google Maps. Google. Retrieved from URL.

MLA: “City, State Abbreviation.” Map. Google Maps. Google, Date retrieved. Web. Date retrieved. 

Chicago: City, State [map]. Data date, if known. Scale, generated by Your Name; using "Google Maps". <URL> (Date retrieved).

See APA and MLA examples See Chicago examples

Museums

There is no Chicago style model for museum exhibits.

Museum exhibit:

APA: Museum name. (Opening date-closing date of exhibition). Exhibition name. Location of museum.

MLA: Last name, first name of artist (if exhibition features the work of a specific artist). Exhibition name. Opening date-closing date of exhibition, Museum name, Location of museum.

Chicago:

Wall text or object label:

APA: Museum name. (Year of exhibit, if part of permanent collection use n.d.). Title of sign [Museum label]. Museum City, State: Author.

MLA: Wall text for Title of artwork or brief description if no title, by Artist first name, last name. Exhibition Title, Opening date-closing date of exhibition, Museum name, Museum location.

See APA exhibit examplesSee MLA exhibit examples

See APA wall text examplesSee MLA wall text examplesSee Chicago wall text examples

Music

Commercial recording (CDs, Vinyl, etc.):

APA: Songwriter Last name, F.M. (Copyright year). Song title [Recorded by performer’s F.M. Last name/musical group]. On Album title [Medium of recording]. City, State of label: Record label name.

MLA: Name of group/composer/performer. "Song Title." Title of the recording, performance by Artist/Group Name(s), Recording Company, Year.

Chicago: Name of group/composer/performer. "Song Title". Contributors. Recording date. Track number on Name of Album (if applicable). Recording Company or Publisher, medium.

Sheet music:

APA: Last name, first initial of composer (Composer). (Year). Title of piece [Sheet music]. Publication location: Publisher. (Original date published, if needed).

MLA: Last name, first name of composer. Title of piece. Year composed. Publication location: Publisher, Date published. Medium of publication.

Chicago: Last name, first name of composer. Title. Place of publication: Publisher, Date published.

See Chicago examples

See APA commercial recording examplesSee MLA commercial recording examples

See APA sheet music examplesSee MLA sheet music examples

Physical Artifacts

It is recommended that you take a picture of the physical artifact (such as a costume, piece of jewelry, or statue) and cite that photograph directly (see Unique Images section below). If that is not possible, follow these guidelines for citing a physical artifact.

Physical object experienced in-person:

APA: Last name, first initial of artist. (Year of composition). Title of work [description of material]. Museum name, Museum location.

MLA: Last name, first name of artist. Title of work. Date of composition, Museum name, Museum location. Materials of composition (optional).

Chicago: Last name, first name of artist. Title of work (title is in italics for paintings and sculptures, and in quotes and roman font for any other mediums), Date of composition. Materials of composition, dimensions of work. Museum location, Museum name.

‚ÄčPhysical object found online:

APA: Last name, first initial of artist. (Year). Title of work [description of material]. Museum name, Museum location. Database name or Retrieved from URL.

MLA: Last name, first name of artist. Title of the work. Date of composition. Name of website, URL. Accessed date.

Chicago: Last name, first name of artist. Title of work (title is in italics for paintings and sculptures, and in quotes and roman font for any other mediums), Date of composition. Materials of composition, dimensions of work. Museum location, Museum name. Accessed date. URL.

See APA examplesSee MLA examplesSee Chicago examples

Social Media

Additional social media examples, such as Facebook, Tumblr, or Soundcloud, can also be found through the examples link at the bottom.

Instagram post:

APA: Last name, F. M. [@username]. (Date posted). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Type of post]. Instagram. URL.

MLA: Username. (@username). Title (if no title, create short description or use "first few words of the image caption"). Instagram, Date posted. URL.

Chicago: Last name, first name (@username). Year. "Full text of Instagram post." Instagram photo, Date posted. URL.

Twitter:

APA: @handle. (Year, month day posted). Full text of tweet. [Twitter post]. Retrieved from URL

MLA: @Username. "Full text of tweet." Twitter, Day month year posted, time posted, URL.

Chicago: Last name, first name of creator (@username). Year. "Full text of the tweet." Twitter, Month day, year, time posted. URL

YouTube video:

APA: Last name, first name of uploader [or single username]. (Year, month day posted). Title of YouTube Video. [Video file]. Retrieved from URL

MLA: Last name, first name of uploader [or single username]. "Title of YouTube Video." Publishing Website, Day month year posted, URL.

Chicago: Last name, first name of uploader [or single username]. "Title of YouTube Video." YouTube, Month day, year posted. Video, length of video. URL.

See examples

Thesis

The following citation example is in APA style.

Thesis (unpublished):

MLA: Author's last name, first name. Title. Year. Name of institution, Type of thesis.

APA: Author’s Last, F. M. (Year submitted). Title in sentence case [Unpublished Degree thesis /dissertation]. Name of institution.

Chicago: Author's last name, first name. "Title: Subtitle." Type of thesis. Name of institution. Year.

Thesis (published in database or repository):

MLA: Author's last name, first name. Title: Subtitle. Year. Name of institution, Type of thesis. URL.

APA: Author’s Last, F. M. (Year published). Title in sentence case (Publication or Document No.) [Degree type thesis or dissertation, Name of institution]. Database name OR Name of archive/collection. URL (if applicable).

Chicago: Author's last name, first name. "Title of Thesis: Subtitle." Database name, Year. URL.

See APA examplesSee MLA examplesSee Chicago examples

Unique Images

No citation is needed for personal photographs when using APA style. The Chicago style citation for personal photographs is adapted from the citation for published photographs.

Meme:

APA: Title of meme/image or your own description of the image [Digital image]. (Year Published). Retrieved from URL.

MLA: Title of meme (or your own description if title isn't available). Title of the Website where it was published, Publisher, Date of publication (if known). URL.

Chicago: Title or description. Digital image. Website Title. Date published. Date accessed (only include if there is no publication date). URL.

Personal photograph:

MLA: Your last name, first name. Short description as title of work. Date the photo was taken. Author's personal collection.

Chicago: Your last name, first name, photographer. "Title/short description." Photograph. Date the photo was taken. Author's personal collection.

See meme examplesSee MLA personal photograph examples